1942-45Enlisted in U.S. Army, served in European Theater, England, France, Belgium, and Germany.
1946-48Attended University of Wisconsin, majored in Fine Arts and Cultural anthropology under Dean Howells and Weston LaBarre.
1948Lived in Paris, studied with Ossip Zadkine. Worked in clay, wood, stone, bronze; modeled portrait heads and drew from the model. Participated in several group exhibitions. Other students were Tajiri, Sidney Geist, M.Tovish, Robert Thomas, and Ken Noland.
1942-45Lived in The Hague, The Netherlands; Worked as a guard for the Marshall Plan. Did illustrations for them and designed furniture for the director of information. Sculpted and exhibited in Holland. Became acquainted with Dutch painters, writers, architects and city planners. First one-man exhibition.
1949-51Moved to London in September. Attended London County Council School of Arts and Crafts. Studied mural painting with Victor Pasmore.

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